Berlin, Germany’s capital and cultural center, dates to the 13th century. Divided during the Cold War, today it's known for its art scene, nightlife and modern architecture, such as Mies van der Rohe’s landmark Neue Nationalgalerie. Reminders of the city's turbulent 10th-century history include its Holocaust Memorial and the Berlin Wall's graffitied remains. Its 18th-century Brandenburg Gate has become an iconic symbol of reunification. The city has a population of 3.5 million people and the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, of which it is surrounded by has about six million residents from over 180 nations. Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes. First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417-1701). Berlin is now a world city of culture, politics, media, and science. Modern Berlin is home to renowned universities, orchestras, museums, entertainment venues, the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts, and a high quality of living.