Minsk, the capital of Belarus, is a modern metropolis dominated by monumental Stalinist architecture. Many of its museums, theaters and other cultural attractions stand along Independence Avenue (Praspyekt Nyezalyezhnastsi), a wide, 15km-long thoroughfare terminating by the vast Independence Square. Looming over this iconic plaza are massive KGB headquarters and the neo-Romanesque Church of Saints Simon and Helena, also known as the Red Church. The earliest historical references to Minsk date to the 11th century (1067), when it was noted as a provincial city within the principality of Polotsk. Minsk has a warm summer its weather is unstable and tends to change often. The average January temperature is −4.5 °C (23.9 °F), while the average July temperature is 18.5 °C (65.3 °F). Minsk is the major cultural centre of Belarus. Its first theatres and libraries were established in the middle of the 19th century. Now it has 11 theatres and 16 museums. There are 20 cinemas and 139 libraries.